Categories
Cloud Computing

Updated Pricing For The SynchroKnot License

The new price for SynchroKnot’s base license for up to 64 cores for any X86_64 system is €1500 [Euro]. We were encouraged to raise the price considering the overall monetary gain:

  1. Substantial Manpower Reduction
  2. Hardware and Software License Cost Reduction
  3. Total Complexity Reduction
  4. The cost of a SynchroKnot license is substantially lower than even the licenses of individual parts/components used in the cloud & data center today.
  5. Ease of bringing about a rapid transformation without expensive, time-consuming consultations and project management.
  6. SynchroKnot is its own institution of technology beyond light years. The SynchroKnot product is beyond comparison to the inefficient & expensive parts/components like those offered by companies like Microsoft, VMware, RedHat, IBM, Amazon, Google, Oracle, Cisco, Juniper and many others all put together, many of whom have lost the most vital ingredient for doing business – Trust –

Important: Be sure to check the updated blacklist under the license section.

Categories
Cloud Computing

Learn and Try Satellite Tree Protocol Hands-On with Mininet Yourself!

As SynchroKnot technology has gained the attention of technical peers and businesses across the globe, the team at Spatial Systems Engineering at SynchroKnot has decided to make the Satellite Tree Protocol software [similar to what is seen in the demonstration videos, but not the bleeding edge] free and available to everyone providing you understand & keep in mind that the enhancements to the IEEE standards 802.1D (1998|2004) and 802.1W as seen in the Linux version and other operating systems versions of the Satellite Tree Protocol Software are the Intellectual Property of its creator and owner Mehul Sharma.

Feel free to use, distribute, hack, re-engineer and have fun!

Keep in mind this software is provided to you “as is” for the purposes of fun without any support or warranty of any kind. One of the considerate ideas behind this decision is to help warm up the end users to get acquainted with the actual SynchroKnot Cloud Computing Decentralization Software.

The Satellite Tree Protocol software provided here is the Linux version, which will work on Linux kernel version 4.9, as seen in Debian and Debian derivatives.

If you have recompiled the kernel or are using a derivative with CONFIG_MODULE_SIG [Module signature verification], then the kernel module will fail to load.

It is recommended that you download and install Debian 9 [Stretch] or Devuan [ASCII] from their official website. Below is a short list of known-to-be-working kernels:

GRML:
SMP Debian 4.9.29-1+grml-1

Kali:
SMP Debian 4.9.30-2kali1

Debian:
SMP Debian 4.9.65-3

Devuan:
SMP Debian 4.9.88-1+deb9u1

Though we understand the actual, real-world use requires understanding of various interconnect topologies, troubleshooting of various aspects depending on your setup, understanding the core work-ability before you can even attempt to troubleshoot, gaining of professional support to help you engineer and help you solve problems, and so on, we believe this will help you get started and see the potential and power of this small part of the complete SynchroKnot software and solution.

For those who are unaware of what Satellite Tree Protocol is, a full description can be found in one of our other articles or on our official website.

What is Mininet?

Mininet creates a realistic virtual network, running real kernel, switch and application code, on a single machine in seconds, with a single command.

Please visit Mininet website to learn more:

Mininet

Install Mininet:

Please visit the Download/Get Started With Mininet page for necessary steps to get Mininet installed:

Important: Please consider installing Mininet on a physical machine with ample resources and not a virtual machine to get good performance when using it with Satellite Tree Protocol.

Steps to Get Started:

1] Important: Make sure you remove the standard Linux Bridge.

rmmod bridge

Please make sure it has been successfully removed.

2] Insert the 8021q module

modprobe 8021q

Please make sure it has successfully loaded.

3] Insert the Satellite Tree Protocol-enabled Bridge:

Please make sure you are loading only the Satellite Tree Protocol-enabled Bridge. To confirm do the following:
modinfo sstp-bridge.ko

The value of alias: should look similar to below:
alias: rtnl-link-SynchroKnot-Satellite-Tree-Protocol-bridge

Now insert the module:
insmod -f [path]/sstp-bridge.ko

example:
insmod -f sstp-bridge.ko

Please make sure it has successfully loaded. The command lsmod should show “bridge”.

4] Create a pair of veth devices to complete the loop of the ring topology:

ip link add loop0 type veth peer name loop1

ifconfig loop0 up
ifconfig loop1 up

5] Start Mininet without a controller [--controller none] and with Linux bridge which is now Satellite Tree Protocol enabled.

mn --controller none --switch lxbr,stp=1 --topo linear,8,1

The topology above [--topo linear,8,1] refers to 8 switches [nodes] in a linear topology. Start with 8 or less switches [nodes] and then increase it when you get acquainted with the workabilities and observations.

You can also add the option below to mn to experiment:

--link=tc,bw=1000

6] Connect the ends of the topology to form one large loop or ring:

brctl addif s1 loop0
brctl addif s8 loop1

[The veth loop devices must be up for the ring to form. We have already brought up the loop0 and loop1 devices in step 3]

Note: As soon as the loop devices are connected you can see topology change and related activity.

One simple way to capture topology change-related activity is to use the Tcpdump utility:

tcpdump -vvv -p -n -i any stp | grep -ie topology

Refer to the tcpdump manual page for more information related to the options:
man tcpdump

For an in-depth investigation you can look at syslog or dmesg. Below is an example to get information in real-time from syslog:

tail -f /var/log/syslog | grep --color -ie sstp

Now, you can start to experiment with bringing down a switch and observing what happens and then bringing it up again and then observing the change.

Example:
echo "Bringing Down s8" && ifconfig s8 down
echo "-- waiting for 10 seconds --" && sleep 10
echo "Bringing Up s8" && ifconfig s8 up

Similarly, you can start pings from one switch [node] to another and make observations. Of course you won’t get a ping response from the switch[es] that you might be bringing down, so make sure you are only pinging the switches that are not being brought down and up.

Also, experiment with moving or bouncing the root bridge over to another switch and then moving it back with and without the pings, and make observations in tcpdump. Obviously, you are not going to move/bounce the root bridge to the switch that you might be bringing up and down.

Example:

Check which switch is the root bridge and then set a lower bridge priority to another switch and you will notice that the bridge with the lower priority becomes the root bridge.

Here we are giving s4 as a priority of 50:

brctl setbridgeprio s4 50

How to check which switch is the root bridge:

In the tcpdump results, see what is next to “root-id” and then find that id after executing brctl show

To move the root bridge back to the previous switch that was the root bridge or to another switch, set a lower priority than 50:

brctl setbridgeprio [name of the switch] 25

To make things easier we have depicted the steps and different experiments in our video demonstrations. Please refer to our website for the details of the demonstrations under the demo section. The links below are directly of the demonstration videos:

Spatial Satellite Tree Protocol

Satellite Tree Protocol showing Root Bridge failure, failover, failback

Satellite Tree Protocol showing Root Bridge failure, failover, failback with Flood Ping from multiple directions

After you have had an opportunity to experiment with the ring topology, you can start Mininet with the Torus topology!

Please keep in mind that at the moment only the binary version of this software is available (similar to many binaries made available by companies such as Nvidia and others). If this conflicts with your belief, please decide against trying or using it.

Considering their active, busy schedule, the team at Spatial Systems Engineering is in the very early stages of gathering requirements and necessary details for the possible open-sourcing of the code of this software.

Also keep in mind that it is not a requirement to use the Satellite Tree Protocol with the SynchroKnot software and solutions. You can use regular switches with STP and RSTP, etc. as well. Many have shown preference for the Satellite Tree Protocol, due to the logical, underlying benefits.

Below are the links to download sstp-bridge.ko and checksum [sha512sum] of sstp-bridge.ko

█ DOWNLOAD SATELLITE TREE PROTOCOL – sstp-bridge.ko 

█ SHA512SUM [in a file] 

SHA512SUM:
13335bcb0c5ce6ba2a497a01ab5e2944f032a7f08a694887d8b17b2bc6160d4532cc231afd5c1b625f23b4e81856d011bacdbee29aaf4b316b77d3633f1d6f7c

Categories
Cloud Computing

The Internet of Spatial Defined Systems with SynchroKnot

What is the Internet of Spatial Defined Systems? and Where does fit in with IoT?

We have heard of Cloud Computing, Data Centers, Edge computing and their numerous expansions and variations. However for the most part the architectures used underneath these Infrastructures and the technologies governing them remain centralized in terms of location and disparate in terms of hardware + software used at that central location.

For example, you may have your cloud computing infrastructure located at a centralized data center. This cloud computing infrastructure is made of up disparate hardware, namely servers, redundant switches & routers, storage [SAN/NAS] and load balancers etc., and run the standard virtualization software like OpenStack, VMware, Hyper-V and so on.

So, in a sense, this standard and expensive business model has locked itself into a myriad of traps. Some of the most important traps are scalability, complexity, security, manageability, maintenance, vendor lock-ins, maintaining of multi-tiered separate teams, time-consuming fixes to problems, and much more.

One method out of this architectural quicksand is to look at the novel approach of the wonderful research done within the IoT industry and adapt it to the systems architecture in a way such that you should be able to use all kinds of systems from embedded devices to desktops, workstations and servers across both wired and wireless networks transparently.

In other words, building a decentralized, automatic cloud and data center which can be rapidly scaled globally within the budget and performance requirements of the end users. Plus, it must have the ability to be kept at locations other than just a data center. Some of the examples of locations are offices, cubicles, basements, apartments, closets, fiber optic hubs, 5G base stations, shops and much more.

This is where SynchroKnot software does it all and takes care of everything. SynchroKnot has made it easy with its software. It installs in minutes and does much more than what the centralized cloud computing technologies and data center put together can do today and what they aspire to be able to do in the future. You can transform any server, workstation, desktop or embedded device into a decentralized cloud or data center [We call it a data decenter].

Apart from just merely de-centralizing, with SynchroKnot, anyone can sell their full or under-utilized hardware resources using Bitcoin, and without involving centralized financial institutions/payment processors.

To alleviate the concerns and criticisms directed towards IoT, SynchroKnot has multifarious real-world security measures built into the software, which are aimed at substantially improving the overall security of decentralized systems.

For SynchroKnot end users, its unique Satellite Tree Protocol allows the inter-connectivity of heterogeneous devices over wired and wireless networks, all automated and fault-tolerant without the need to manage any aspect. This unique network component eliminates the need for physical switches and routers.

There are a multitude of components that you can choose from to build and enhance your Internet of Spatial Defined Systems!

For more information, please visit synchroknot.com

Categories
Cloud Computing

Cost Analysis: VMware, Hyper-V & Openstack -VS – SynchroKnot

[Note: This is user submitted content which is meant to help one get started on doing one’s own research and come to a definitive conclusion.]

In addition to researching the license costs, don’t forget to add the cost of complexity in a heterogeneous setup [i.e management, maintenance, deployment, upgrade, licenses, lock-ins, multi-vendor support, vendor bankruptcy and so on] which always remains mostly hidden.

You pay much more for complexity than any or all of the license costs put together.

Below are a few links that give you an idea of the license costs of VMware, Hyper-V and Openstack.

Most of the high costs shown are only of components and not like that of an all-inclusive and all-exclusive product like SynchroKnot.

It may be worth noting that if your vendor has not already hiked the license cost, it is likely that those costs will increase with little or no notice.

1] Observe the prices on page 8 [totaling to $124,291.52]

https://www.vmware.com/content/dam/digitalmarketing/vmware/en/pdf/techpaper/openstack_vsan_0614-white-paper.pdf

2] VMware Vs Hyper-V

For 20 processors : vSphere Enterprise+ = $116,124 and System Center 2016 = $90,175

These are just cost comparisons of components pertaining to the virtualization software, and do not include licenses for switches, routers, SAN, NAS etc.

https://blog.heroix.com/blog/virtualization-licensing

3] This cost is just for the small component of the networking aspect:

https://technodrone.blogspot.com/2015/02/vmware-integrated-openstack-cost.html

4] Look at the prices of the following below on the VMware official website. These are just basic licenses. It is likely that you will need a number of other licenses as well.

VMware vCenter Server Foundation, VMware vCenter Server Standard, VMware vSphere Enterprise Plus, VMware vSphere Platinum:

https://www.vmware.com/reusable_content/vsphere_pricing.html

5] The Openstack Enterprise Licenses also fall in the higher cost bracket.

At the time of writing this excerpt, the SynchroKnot Base License cost for an all-inclusive and all-exclusive product & solution is only €1000 [Euro] for up to 64 physical CPU cores.

The SynchroKnot advantage is beyond what can be compared with any cloud computing product, technology, software and solution all put together today or tomorrow.

Simply acquire and install the SynchroKnot software to realize the benefits for your organization.

If the cost comparison might ring a bell, the upcoming performance comparison will ring/wring ….. ?

More information is available at synchroknot.com

Categories
Cloud Computing

Transparent Auto Network Address Translation

SynchroKnot Automatic Network Address Translation [NAT] Enablement allows for transparent access to Infrastructure Engine and Virtual Machine Consoles [HTML5/Java], Log Panorama and more from behind NAT [Network Address Translation] without having to configure anything on the client-side or server-side.

This feature allows for secure and easy setup & access from behind standard NATs so that tenants can have direct access, or access from their VPNs without accessing the actual provider network. This feature brings about flexibility and simplicity, while at the same time allows the service providers to securely keep the tenants separated.

Excerpt from the SynchroKnot Manual: The Infrastructure Engine can be accessed by all tenants in the 10.xxx.xxx.xxx range corresponding to the 28.xxx.xxx.xxx range IP address given to the Spatial Fabric Satellite. Eg. https://10.9.0.1/SynchroKnot.sknt

To access the SynchroKnot Infrastructure Engine on a Spatial Fabric Satellite from the above description, the IP address of the machine used to access the Infrastructure Engine from the web browser must be in the 10.x.x.x range for security reasons.

If you have a tenant behind a transparent NAT in the 172.x.x.x range for example, and it is pointed to the 10.x.x.x range to access the Infrastructure Engine, then the access is possible but with certain limitations.

The Infrastructure Engine will not know about the 172.x.x.x range from where the request is coming in as it is on the other side of NAT. Therefore, the response[s] given would still be pointing to the 10.x.x.x range.

This would cause the http and other requests & redirects such as Cross Domain Ajax, the opening of new tabs for websocket based HTML5 console access, Java based console access, Log Panorama …. and much more to NOT work.

Example scenarios without the use of SynchroKnot Auto NAT Enablement:

■ Scenario A Works:

[ web browser in 10.x.x.x range ] –> [ Infrastructure Engine in 10.x.x.x range ]

Different types of redirects sent from the Infrastructure Engine work transparently.

■ Scenario B Does Not Work:

[ web browser in 172.x.x.x range ] –> [ NAT ] –> [ Infrastructure Engine in 10.x.x.x range ]

[ web browser in 192.x.x.x range ] –> [ NAT ] –> [ NAT ] –> [ Infrastructure Engine in 10.x.x.x range ]

Different types of redirects sent from the Infrastructure Engine are pointing in the 10.x.x.x. The web browsers in 172 & 192 ranges behind single and double NATs will trigger the redirect in the 10.x.x.x range but will not be able reach the destination in the 10.x.x.x range.

The SynchroKnot Auto NAT Enablement feature transparently addresses this issue and allows full access just as if you were accessing the Infrastructure Engine from the 10.x.x.x network.

The above Scenario A and B would work with SynchroKnot Auto NAT Enablement. This should work with any transparent NAT [eg. with IPtables etc].

This unique solution was possible with the combination of partly server-side + partly server-side-embedded-client-side functionality [which is unique to SynchroKnot].

One does not have to touch the transparent firewall!

Eg. If you were using IPtables to DNAT and SNAT/Masquerade on a transparent NAT box in between, then simply set the 172.x.x.x range to point to 10.x.x.x. range. That’s it. No need for further reconfiguration, updating the rules for mapping/unmapping/remapping ports, IP addresses etc.

Categories
Cloud Computing

Distributed Fault-Tolerant Authentication Management & Identification Control System

At the rate at which technology today is moving forward with the Internet speeds increasing manifold, with IoT gaining prominence and organizations more distributed across the globe than before, the authentication software, systems and architectures remain fairly primitive.

Among the many reasons attributing to this is corporates that build these authenticating systems and software hold on to these products as their main source of income. The insight and research in these areas has also been fairly mundane. Though there’s been enough research funding, what’s missing has been the intellect and knowledge required to build large-scale distributed and decentralized authentication systems and architectures.

Large-scale authentication systems and architectures used in building them must allow both manned [computers, tablets, phones, virtual machines etc] and unmanned [IoT devices etc] to authenticate and authorize themselves without a centralized bottleneck, as seen in authentication systems like LDAP, Active Directory and others.

As experienced on a daily basis, these centralized authentication systems are not scalable or fault-tolerant without a sane fail-over MTBF [Mean Time Between Failure] causing business disruptions on a regular and long-lasting basis.

■ What can be done about this?

Let us acquaint ourselves with AuthControl. SynchroKnot designed and developed AuthControl as a result of realizing inadequacies in the centralized authentication systems [LDAP & Active Directory].

AuthControl was designed with the following flexibility in mind:

  • Ability for authentication to be either centralized, distributed, decentralized or a combination of these.
  • Ability to be seamlessly and transparently scaled on-demand across the globe with no downtime.
  • Ability to be used by standard operating systems within their security framework without custom or proprietary software, enhancements, modifications or hacks.
  • Ability to be used across all devices that can make a simple https call. and much more.

■ What is AuthControl?

AuthControl is SynchroKnot’s unique Distributed Fault-Tolerant Authentication Management & Identification Control System that serves as a scalable, secure and simple alternative to LDAP, Active Directory and other authentication systems.

In AuthControl, the user[s] can be delegated and made responsible for managing their password. Furthermore, the user’s password SHA512/GOST checksum is kept encrypted.

■ Password + Pin

The user[s] can log in to their virtual machines or physical hardware [eg. computers, tablets, mobile phones etc] with their standard username and password + 5 digit unique pin.

This 5 digit pin is not set by the user, but is rather auto or manually generated per the preference of the organization. Without having to manage separate pins for each user, and the ability to change them on a regular basis, makes logging into systems and authentication for various purposes more secure without adding the burden of lengthy procedures/steps.

Depending on the nature of the circumstance, user access can be restricted/limited by simply changing the PIN.

■ Algorithmically-ascertained decentralized numeric User and Group ID

Authcontrol also has the unique capability of creating operating system specific user and group identities that are unique. For example, AuthControl can create a Linux User ID and Group ID that are unique and always return the same numeric value for the ID.

This unique numeric user and group ID is algorithmically created in a decentralized manner without having to generate, store and poll centralized or distributed databases.

Due to the uniqueness of the user and group IDs, they can be instantly checked for changes/manipulations and reinstated automatically if changed without having to poll, check and compare with central or distributed databases. It can also report/alert in the similar manner.

AuthControl’s strong security is strengthened with the use of inter-leaved mapping of Usernames to their Blockchain IDs and further using blockchain cryptography [not the blockchain network] to ascertain authenticity. This is another unique feature you will not find anywhere else but with SynchroKnot.

■ Fault Tolerant

AuthControl algorithmically checks for failures across multiple geographically-dispersed locations [configurable up to 10] before returning unreachable.

■ Load Balanced

Each user or groups of users can be assigned different geographically-dispersed locations for load balancing [with additional option of fault-tolerance].

■ Scalable

Enable AuthControl in virtual or physical machines, point more users to them, and scale seamlessly and transparently across the globe.

■ Simple

Very easy to set up and manage. Works transparently with Linux PAM without modifying standard PAM modules, and is end-to-end encrypted [uses standard HTTPS for communication].

Since this is just an article for getting acquainted with AuthControl, we refrain from getting into technicalities which might be better reflected in a whitepaper.

■ Below are examples of different methods that users can log in or access resources transparently with their standard Username and Password + 5 Digit PIN:

├─> Graphical Login
├─> Graphical Screen Saver Login [eg. screen lock]
├─> Non-Graphical Login
├─> SUDO – Execute a command as another user
├─> SU – Super User
├─> SSH – Secure Shell
├─> SCP – Secure Copy
├─> SFTP – Secure File Transfer Protocol
├─> SSHFS – Secure Shell File System
├─> FTP – File Transfer Protocol
├─> VNC – Virtual Network Computing
├─> RDP – Remote Desktop Protocol
├─> CUPs – standards based open source printing system
├─> CRON – Execution of scheduled commands
├─> SAMBA – Windows AD and SMB/CIFS fileserver for UNIX
├─> File Manager – Create Network Place with SFTP, SAMBA and FTP
├─> All password requirements via Control Center
├─> Practically anything that uses Standard PAM for authentication!

Below is a direct link to the demonstration video:

AuthControl Demo

Description of the demonstration:

This is a very basic impromptu demonstration of AuthControl. Here both of the virtual machines are enabled with AuthControl and show the following:

■ Login via Graphical Interface

■ Login via Non-Graphical Interface

■ Run a command with SU as another user

■ Run a command with SUDO as another user

■ Login to a remote system via SSH

■ Mount a remote filesystem via SSHFS

■ Use File Manager to create a Network Place using SFTP

All these different types of logins use AuthControl with standard Linux users and password + 5 digit pin. The basic HTTPS traffic is captured using TCPDUMP to show realtime interaction with the SynchroKnot AuthControl when the password is entered in the virtual machines for the purposes of authentication.

Note: This demo was recorded on a severely resource-constrained system. It is up to you to determine the performance.

More information and technical insights can be found @ synchroknot.com

Categories
Cloud Computing

Decentralized Network Security with Interstellars

We have heard about multifarious approaches to network security in the insecure times today with quite a few of them adding additional complexity and manageability to the already complex centralized cloud computing and data center setups.

Interstellars are a part of SynchroKnot Spatial Defined Networking and allow the creation of networks separated and secured directly at Ethernet layer 2. In Cloud Computing terminology, with Interstellars, the tenants have the ability to bifurcate and secure their network of virtual machines across decentralized hardware by simply assigning the virtual machines’ network interface card with a 28-bit Interstellar Identification.

By bifurcating and securing the decentralized network at layer 2, only the virtual machines that have the same Interstellar Identification can communicate with eachother, irrespective of their local or global location.

As an additional benefit, you can save a lot of time and energy by not having to carve separate layer 3 networks and setting up different gateways for them. Further, you may not have to configure the virtual machines to point the gateways you set up to have them communicate!

In this way you can substantially reduce the complexity, manageability and maintainence of networks and also further reduce the risks of misconfigurations which usually lead to security breaches.

Interstellars come built-in with the SynchroKnot software. The SynchroKnot software transforms any server, workstation, desktop or embedded device into a decentralized cloud or data center [data decenter].

You can use any commodity X86_64 Desktop/Workstation/Server/Embedded device and connect them to eachother in minutes.

Here are some of the highlights of how SynchroKnot Interstellar approaches network security by getting directly to the heart of layer 2 Ethernet:

■ Fully Flattens, Bifurcates and Secures the network at Layer 2. Works transparently, irrespective of stacked / unstacked vlans, and without deviating from standard Ethernet semantics.

■ Based on the design and architecture of Interstellar Identification, Interstellar Resonance Identification and Interstellar OUI [Organizationally Unique Identifier].

■ Each vNIC of the virtual machine MAC address has a 28-bit Interstellar Identification. Assign your own choice of Interstellar IDs.

■ Each virtual machine with the same Interstellar ID can communicate with eachother irrespective of their location. All other traffic from the virtual machine is not allowed to touch the network.

■ In the case where a virtual machine needs to resonate [ communicate ] across different Interstellars at the same time, additional Interstellar IDs can be accommodated in the form of Interstellar Resonance IDs. Both Interstellar and Interstellar Resonance IDs remain intact even when the virtual machines relocate to any other decentralized location.

■ Interstellar OUI allows direct interaction of the virtual machines with the existing physical data center infrastructure [ routers, switches, gateways, appliances & devices ]. Simply add the needed OUI(s) [ organizationally unique identifier – a 24-bit number that uniquely identifies a vendor or manufacturer ] and gain transparent access.

■ Interstellars [ in collaboration with other SynchroKnot features ] allow for flexible carving of the IP network(s) of the virtual machines by allowing the creation of large networks [ eg: /7, /8, /16 etc ] without having to set up routing and gateways to move across subnets or worry about broadcasts. The same flexibility is transparently possible with IPv6 and anything usually above layer 2.

More information is available at:
■ synchroknot.com

Categories
Cloud Computing

Software Defined to Spatial Defined Networking

While software defined networking has proven its value, SynchroKnot has taken software defined networking to a whole new dimension with Spatial Defined Networking.

Spatial Defined Networking is made up of SynchroKnot’s core networking component called Satellite Tree Protocol, which is an enhancement to the IEEE standard [ 802.1D (1998|2004), 802.1W ] while keeping the core semantics in place.

This simplistically means, you can use any commodity X86_64 Desktop/Workstation/Server/Embedded device and connect them to eachother.

There is no need to purchase physical or virtual switches and routers or any of their licenses [Eg. Cisco, Juniper etc].

Satellite Tree Protocol is the core networking component of the SynchroKnot Cloud Computing and Data Center Decentralization software.

In brief, the SynchroKnot software transforms any server, workstation, desktop or embedded device into a decentralized cloud or data center [data decenter].

There are various demonstration videos depicting its workability, performance, security and scalability on synchroknot.tokyo

Here are some of the highlights of the SynchroKnot Satellite Tree Protocol:

■ Automatic – Mission-Critical – Resilient – Self-Sustaining – Self-Healing – Seamless Scaling Without Down-Time – High-Performance.

■ Nothing to configure or manage.

■ Enhancement to the IEEE standard [ 802.1D (1998|2004), 802.1W ] while keeping the core semantics in place.

Standard Layer 2 Ethernet remains pure, untouched and unmodified without frame encapsulation, additional headers or other forms of tinkering.

■ Improving upon and applying the globally accepted IEEE standard found in network switches onto Spatial Fabric Satellites. Network is no longer a separate complex component with separate hardware and licenses, but is now built right in with nothing extra that needs to be done.

■ Depending on your need and/or requirement, you now have a logical straight-forward option and ability to eliminate Top-of-the-Rack, Spine, Leaf, Edge, Aggregation and Core Switches & Routers, along with their respective licenses.

■ Large-Scale, High-Performance Layer 2 Environment with a single instance of Satellite Tree Protocol with support for single, double and triple stacked VLANS.

■ Does not cause a network-wide outage on failure of link(s) as experienced with regular Spanning Tree Protocol [ STP ] and Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol [ RSTP ].

■ Recovery from failure is, in most cases, in sub-milliseconds to about 1.5 seconds depending on the nature of failure [ single / multiple links ] and the distance from the point(s) of failure. Traffic that does not traverse the path where failure occured is generally not affected by the failure at all.

■ Intelligent Layer 2 Optimized Cost Multipath forwarding logic based on local intelligence chooses the best link with the shortest optimal path in normal operation, congestion and on link failure.

■ Multiple ANY-to-ANY Layer 2 routes allow you to add and remove hardware transparently without turning off whole or sections of the network, as experienced with switches and routers in networks today.

■ Zero Configuration.

How about never having to endure countless hours of pain configuring, managing and maintaining physical Ethernet ports, trunking and ACLs and other aspects? How about plugging one end of Ethernet cable into ANY physical port of a commodity hardware and connecting the other end to ANY physical port of another commodity hardware and that’s it – nothing to do.

■ Get the best of cost, low latency, bandwidth and performance in multiple directions, not just East-West / North-South with the help of SynchroKnot Multi-Dimensional topology.

■ SynchroKnot Multi-Dimensional topology is a dynamic mix and integration of proven network topologies which are used as a primary backbone in High Performance Computing and Supercomputing. These include Ring, 2-D, 3-D and many other custom topologies optimized for cost, performance and simplified cabling.

■ Single-length cable for the entire cluster. No long haul cables. No expensive power-consuming optical cables.

■ Very low CPU usage.

Apart from all these features, there are multitude of extra security features to choose from on top of the Satellite Tree Protocol.


More information is available at:
■ synchroknot.com

Categories
Cloud Computing

Strong Network Security with ARPless – Hapless without ARPless?

In the realm of network security we tend to hear a lot of terms like “denial of service”, “man-in-the-middle”, or “session hijacking” and so on. For those deep into the networking and network security field, dealing with these terms is a real-life situation everyday.

Also, keeping up to date with the latest trends, software and solutions is a major part of the knowledge gathering practices.

Although it is near-impossible to have a 100% final solution to the serious issues of denial of service, man-in-the-middle, or session hijacking and similar others, SynchroKnot has approached the underlying cause to help substantially reduce and, in some cases, fully alleviate these issues.

For those unfamiliar, SynchroKnot software transforms any server, workstation, desktop or embedded device into a decentralized cloud or data center [data decenter] in minutes. You can use any commodity X86_64 Desktop/Workstation/Server/Embedded device and connect them to eachother. There is no need to purchase virtualization software [VMware, OpenStack, Hyper-V etc], switches & routers or storage [SAN/NAS].

ARPless is a part of SynchroKnot Spatial Defined Networking and works with the virtual machines of the tenants. It builds a secure vacuum of multi-dimensional layers of security starting with not allowing the virtual machine’s MAC address to be spoofed. Then, it only allows the communication between groups of virtual machines with their matching 28-bit Interstellar Identification assigned to their MAC addresses, and as a last step, securely and intelligently auto-responds to the virtual machines when they make an ARP request so that they always know who is who and where to go. This practically makes ARP spoofing, ARP cache poisoning, or ARP poison routing very difficult-to-impossible.

[It is advised to read the post earlier about Interstellars]

As an additional option, ARPless can be invoked with blockchain cryptography, which ensures that security policies, accountability and awareness are at the same level across the team(s), department(s) and organization(s).

Above is just a brief description. Below are some of the highlights:

■ ARPless creates a secure vacuum for trusted communication between virtual machines, and also with the existing physical infrastructure.

■ ARPless does not allow forced traffic diversion from poisoned ARP caches of virtual machines to reach undesired destination(s).

■ ARPless ignores requests from virtual machines that impersonate the original to force divert traffic or gain access.

■ ARPless securely and intelligently auto-responds to the virtual machines when they make an ARP request [ no agent / software needs to be installed inside the virtual machine(s) ]. It does not allow ARP requests from the virtual machines to get onto the network.

■ ARPless can further limit ARP traffic within the secure vacuum.

■ ARPless practically makes ARP spoofing, ARP cache poisoning, or ARP poison routing very difficult-to-impossible, which in turn substantially reduces the possibilities of other attacks stemming from it, such as denial of service, man-in-the-middle, or session hijacking.

■ ARPless intelligently handles and manages the following opcodes : 1 Request, 2 Reply, 3 Request_Reverse, 4 Reply_Reverse, 5 DRARP_Request, 6 DRARP_Reply, 7 DRARP_Error, 8 InARP_Request and 9 ARP_NAK

We have an excellent video to sharpen your skills at the link below.

■ Network Security with Arpless Interstellar

More information is available at:
■ synchroknot.com

Categories
Cloud Computing

Flood Ping Fun with 24 Switches in a Ring Topology!

This demonstration video shows a total of 24 Ethernet switches in one large loop [ Ring Topology ] with Satellite Tree Protocol enabled and multiple switches being brought down and up every 10 seconds while Flood Pings are underway from multiple directions!

The SynchroKnot Satellite Tree Protocol an enhancement to the IEEE standard [ 802.1D (1998|2004), 802.1W ] while keeping the core semantics in place, and is a part of SynchroKnot Spatial Defined Networking.

Satellite Tree Protocol is the core networking component of the SynchroKnot Cloud Computing and Data Center Decentralization software which transforms any server, workstation, desktop or embedded device into a decentralized cloud or data center [data decenter].

The object is to ascertain the automatic and fast network resilience [root bridge failure, failover and failback], fault tolerance and intelligent path selection capabilities amidst very low hardware resources.

This demonstration setup has been purposefully done with an illogical setting so as to test how it can perform in extreme circumstances.

Mininet is used for actual network emulation.

You may also notice results of prior flood ping tests in the demonstration video before the current one gets underway.

We would like to assume that the outcome result with 0% [zero percent] packet loss with 24 switches is a bit much for our logical mind to digest and would love to blame the ping utility with a faulty flood ping option 🙂 ….. of course upon deeper contemplation you may develop an insight that differs.

■ In actual use case scenarios, with our unique cabling technique in a 5 X 5 2-D Torus topology, one may generally not have more than one or two hops! 24 nodes are used for purposes of extreme testing in difficult case scenarios.

■ Simple machine with 2 cores [4 threads] Intel Core i7-6500U Processor with 8 GB RAM. Alongside, a few running virtual machines not a part of this demo were used in the background to consume CPU and memory resources, leaving fewer CPU cycles and memory for Satellite Tree Protocol and the 24 nodes with Mininet. [This demonstration video was also recorded on the same machine and thus used additional CPU cycles and memory.]

■ Side Note : Spanning Tree Protocol and Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol generally respond to failures by recovering in about 40 to 300 seconds or more depending upon the timers and topology [ RSTP may recover faster in some scenarios ]. This is with the regular vendor / standards suggested timers found in most switches in standard setups today. One can increase the network diameter [ i.e number of switches between two endpoints ] to a maximum of about 18. This however will substantially increase the recovery time, alongside most likely put the timers of switches out of sync. Your mileage may vary. Please do your own research.

■ Caution : If you try a similar setup with standard physical Ethernet switches [Cisco, Juniper etc] then you are solely responsible if you brick your appliance(es). We cannot help you recover them.

In brief, the SynchroKnot software transforms any server, workstation, desktop or embedded device into a decentralized cloud or data center [data decenter]. You can use any commodity X86_64 Desktop/Workstation/Server/Embedded device and connect them to eachother. There is no need to purchase physical or virtual switches and routers or any of their licenses [Eg. Cisco, Juniper etc].

This demonstration video is available at the link below and also on synchroknot.com under the the demo section:

■ Spatial Satellite Tree Protocol showing Root Bridge failure, failover, failback with Flood Ping from multiple directions

More information is available at:
■ synchroknot.com