Categories
Cloud Computing

The Internet of Spatial Defined Systems with SynchroKnot

What is the Internet of Spatial Defined Systems? and Where does fit in with IoT?

We have heard of Cloud Computing, Data Centers, Edge computing and their numerous expansions and variations. However for the most part the architectures used underneath these Infrastructures and the technologies governing them remain centralized in terms of location and disparate in terms of hardware + software used at that central location.

For example, you may have your cloud computing infrastructure located at a centralized data center. This cloud computing infrastructure is made of up disparate hardware, namely servers, redundant switches & routers, storage [SAN/NAS] and load balancers etc., and run the standard virtualization software like OpenStack, VMware, Hyper-V and so on.

So, in a sense, this standard and expensive business model has locked itself into a myriad of traps. Some of the most important traps are scalability, complexity, security, manageability, maintenance, vendor lock-ins, maintaining of multi-tiered separate teams, time-consuming fixes to problems, and much more.

One method out of this architectural quicksand is to look at the novel approach of the wonderful research done within the IoT industry and adapt it to the systems architecture in a way such that you should be able to use all kinds of systems from embedded devices to desktops, workstations and servers across both wired and wireless networks transparently.

In other words, building a decentralized, automatic cloud and data center which can be rapidly scaled globally within the budget and performance requirements of the end users. Plus, it must have the ability to be kept at locations other than just a data center. Some of the examples of locations are offices, cubicles, basements, apartments, closets, fiber optic hubs, 5G base stations, shops and much more.

This is where SynchroKnot software does it all and takes care of everything. SynchroKnot has made it easy with its software. It installs in minutes and does much more than what the centralized cloud computing technologies and data center put together can do today and what they aspire to be able to do in the future. You can transform any server, workstation, desktop or embedded device into a decentralized cloud or data center [We call it a data decenter].

Apart from just merely de-centralizing, with SynchroKnot, anyone can sell their full or under-utilized hardware resources using Bitcoin, and without involving centralized financial institutions/payment processors.

To alleviate the concerns and criticisms directed towards IoT, SynchroKnot has multifarious real-world security measures built into the software, which are aimed at substantially improving the overall security of decentralized systems.

For SynchroKnot end users, its unique Satellite Tree Protocol allows the inter-connectivity of heterogeneous devices over wired and wireless networks, all automated and fault-tolerant without the need to manage any aspect. This unique network component eliminates the need for physical switches and routers.

There are a multitude of components that you can choose from to build and enhance your Internet of Spatial Defined Systems!

For more information, please visit synchroknot.com

Categories
Cloud Computing

Distributed Fault-Tolerant Authentication Management & Identification Control System

At the rate at which technology today is moving forward with the Internet speeds increasing manifold, with IoT gaining prominence and organizations more distributed across the globe than before, the authentication software, systems and architectures remain fairly primitive.

Among the many reasons attributing to this is corporates that build these authenticating systems and software hold on to these products as their main source of income. The insight and research in these areas has also been fairly mundane. Though there’s been enough research funding, what’s missing has been the intellect and knowledge required to build large-scale distributed and decentralized authentication systems and architectures.

Large-scale authentication systems and architectures used in building them must allow both manned [computers, tablets, phones, virtual machines etc] and unmanned [IoT devices etc] to authenticate and authorize themselves without a centralized bottleneck, as seen in authentication systems like LDAP, Active Directory and others.

As experienced on a daily basis, these centralized authentication systems are not scalable or fault-tolerant without a sane fail-over MTBF [Mean Time Between Failure] causing business disruptions on a regular and long-lasting basis.

■ What can be done about this?

Let us acquaint ourselves with AuthControl. SynchroKnot designed and developed AuthControl as a result of realizing inadequacies in the centralized authentication systems [LDAP & Active Directory].

AuthControl was designed with the following flexibility in mind:

  • Ability for authentication to be either centralized, distributed, decentralized or a combination of these.
  • Ability to be seamlessly and transparently scaled on-demand across the globe with no downtime.
  • Ability to be used by standard operating systems within their security framework without custom or proprietary software, enhancements, modifications or hacks.
  • Ability to be used across all devices that can make a simple https call. and much more.

■ What is AuthControl?

AuthControl is SynchroKnot’s unique Distributed Fault-Tolerant Authentication Management & Identification Control System that serves as a scalable, secure and simple alternative to LDAP, Active Directory and other authentication systems.

In AuthControl, the user[s] can be delegated and made responsible for managing their password. Furthermore, the user’s password SHA512/GOST checksum is kept encrypted.

■ Password + Pin

The user[s] can log in to their virtual machines or physical hardware [eg. computers, tablets, mobile phones etc] with their standard username and password + 5 digit unique pin.

This 5 digit pin is not set by the user, but is rather auto or manually generated per the preference of the organization. Without having to manage separate pins for each user, and the ability to change them on a regular basis, makes logging into systems and authentication for various purposes more secure without adding the burden of lengthy procedures/steps.

Depending on the nature of the circumstance, user access can be restricted/limited by simply changing the PIN.

■ Algorithmically-ascertained decentralized numeric User and Group ID

Authcontrol also has the unique capability of creating operating system specific user and group identities that are unique. For example, AuthControl can create a Linux User ID and Group ID that are unique and always return the same numeric value for the ID.

This unique numeric user and group ID is algorithmically created in a decentralized manner without having to generate, store and poll centralized or distributed databases.

Due to the uniqueness of the user and group IDs, they can be instantly checked for changes/manipulations and reinstated automatically if changed without having to poll, check and compare with central or distributed databases. It can also report/alert in the similar manner.

AuthControl’s strong security is strengthened with the use of inter-leaved mapping of Usernames to their Blockchain IDs and further using blockchain cryptography [not the blockchain network] to ascertain authenticity. This is another unique feature you will not find anywhere else but with SynchroKnot.

■ Fault Tolerant

AuthControl algorithmically checks for failures across multiple geographically-dispersed locations [configurable up to 10] before returning unreachable.

■ Load Balanced

Each user or groups of users can be assigned different geographically-dispersed locations for load balancing [with additional option of fault-tolerance].

■ Scalable

Enable AuthControl in virtual or physical machines, point more users to them, and scale seamlessly and transparently across the globe.

■ Simple

Very easy to set up and manage. Works transparently with Linux PAM without modifying standard PAM modules, and is end-to-end encrypted [uses standard HTTPS for communication].

Since this is just an article for getting acquainted with AuthControl, we refrain from getting into technicalities which might be better reflected in a whitepaper.

■ Below are examples of different methods that users can log in or access resources transparently with their standard Username and Password + 5 Digit PIN:

├─> Graphical Login
├─> Graphical Screen Saver Login [eg. screen lock]
├─> Non-Graphical Login
├─> SUDO – Execute a command as another user
├─> SU – Super User
├─> SSH – Secure Shell
├─> SCP – Secure Copy
├─> SFTP – Secure File Transfer Protocol
├─> SSHFS – Secure Shell File System
├─> FTP – File Transfer Protocol
├─> VNC – Virtual Network Computing
├─> RDP – Remote Desktop Protocol
├─> CUPs – standards based open source printing system
├─> CRON – Execution of scheduled commands
├─> SAMBA – Windows AD and SMB/CIFS fileserver for UNIX
├─> File Manager – Create Network Place with SFTP, SAMBA and FTP
├─> All password requirements via Control Center
├─> Practically anything that uses Standard PAM for authentication!

Below is a direct link to the demonstration video:

AuthControl Demo

Description of the demonstration:

This is a very basic impromptu demonstration of AuthControl. Here both of the virtual machines are enabled with AuthControl and show the following:

■ Login via Graphical Interface

■ Login via Non-Graphical Interface

■ Run a command with SU as another user

■ Run a command with SUDO as another user

■ Login to a remote system via SSH

■ Mount a remote filesystem via SSHFS

■ Use File Manager to create a Network Place using SFTP

All these different types of logins use AuthControl with standard Linux users and password + 5 digit pin. The basic HTTPS traffic is captured using TCPDUMP to show realtime interaction with the SynchroKnot AuthControl when the password is entered in the virtual machines for the purposes of authentication.

Note: This demo was recorded on a severely resource-constrained system. It is up to you to determine the performance.

More information and technical insights can be found @ synchroknot.com

Categories
Cloud Computing

Decentralized Blockchain Identity Management

Blockchain is one of the fastest growing sectors world-wide. SynchroKnot focuses on different aspects of the blockchain technologies and utilizes them in its own, unique perspective.

One of the many unique blockchain innovations SynchroKnot has engineered is the Decentralized Identity Management System, which uses fast blockchain cryptography in real time to confirm user identity and all the users’ rest-based and other requests.

Here the main advantage is that there are no passwords, checksums or salts kept on the server or anywhere else, for that matter.

The inherent uniqueness is further magnified with the integration of multi-fault-tolerant standard LDAP and Active Directory, if required, for an additional layer of security.

Highlights and Steps:

■ 1] Identify the people to whom you want to give access rights and the type of access.

■ 2] Add their Blockchain ID [ public blockchain address – Eg. Bitcoin Address ]. That’s it. Nothing to do.

■ The user can log in successfully with his / her Blockchain ID and the Blockchain ID of the Spatial Cluster. The user only uses his / her Blockchain Private Key to sign a Spatial Nonce Fingerprint [ invisible to the user ]. The Private Key is only used in the browser to sign and not sent to the server.

■ Once successfully authenticated, a Signed Nonce Fingerprint, among other things, is injected into the browser cookie. No need to login again!

■ ONLY the Blockchain ID [ Bitcoin Address ] of the user(s) is present on the Spatial Fabric Array(s). No checksums, salts, signatures, hashes, keys, passwords etc. Nothing else.

The demonstration video at the link below depicts the following:

■ Authorized user logging in his/her Blockchain Identity and Active Directory / LDAP password.

■ For the purpose of demonstration, the user first logs in without the password and is prompted to enter the password as Level 2 Security [ie LDAP and Active Directory] is enabled. Then the user enters a wrong password which is rejected by the designated Active Directory / LDAP server(s). On the third attempt the user succesfully logs into the SynchroKnot Infrastructure Engine.

■ In this demonstration, for the purposes of testing, the password is authenticated against the first 3 LDAP servers designated to the user and fails, and then successfully authenticates against the 4th LDAP server.

■ Speed is clearly visible, in spite of multiple, complex security and cryptographic operations being performed by SynchroKnot.

Note: The demonstration video does not depict the latest version, but does gives a clear visual understanding.

This demonstration video is available at the link below:

■ Decentralized Heterogeneous Blockchain Identity Management

More information is available at:
synchroknot.com

Categories
Cloud Computing

Cloud Computing Decentralization Software

We have heard of Cloud Computing, Data Centers, Edge computing and their numerous expansions and variations. However for the most part the architectures used underneath these infrastructures and the technologies governing them remain centralized in terms of location and disparate in terms of hardware + software used at that central location.

For example, you may have your cloud computing infrastructure located at a centralized data center. This cloud computing infrastructure is made of up disparate hardware, namely servers, redundant switches & routers, storage [SAN/NAS] and load balancers etc., and run the standard virtualization software like OpenStack, VMware, Hyper-V and so on.

So, in a sense, this standard and expensive business model has locked itself into a myriad of traps. Some of the most important traps are scalability, complexity, security, manageability, maintenance, vendor lock-ins, maintaining of multi-tiered separate teams, time-consuming fixes to problems, and much more.

One method out of this architectural quicksand is to look at the novel approach of the wonderful research done within the Blockchain and IoT industry and adapt it to the systems architecture in a way such that you should be able to use all kinds of systems from embedded devices to desktops, workstations and servers across both wired and wireless networks transparently.

In other words, building a decentralized, automatic cloud and data center which can be rapidly scaled globally within the budget and performance requirements of the end users. Plus, it must have the ability to be kept at locations other than just a data center. Some of the examples of locations are offices, cubicles, basements, apartments, closets, fiber optic hubs, 5G base stations, shops and much more.

This is where SynchroKnot software does it all and takes care of everything. SynchroKnot has made it easy with its software. It installs in minutes and does much more than what the centralized cloud computing and data center technologies put together can do today and what they aspire to be able to do in the future.

You can transform any server, workstation, desktop or embedded device into a decentralized cloud or data center and connect them to eachother in minutes!

Apart from just merely de-centralizing, with SynchroKnot, anyone can sell their full or under-utilized hardware resources using Bitcoin, and without involving centralized financial institutions/payment processors.

SynchroKnot also has multifarious real-world security measures built into the software, which are aimed at substantially improving the overall security of decentralized systems.

More information is available under the Overview section.