Cloud Computing

Decentralized Network Security with Interstellars

We have heard about multifarious approaches to network security in the insecure times today with quite a few of them adding additional complexity and manageability to the already complex centralized cloud computing and data center setups.

Interstellars are a part of SynchroKnot Spatial Defined Networking and allow the creation of networks separated and secured directly at Ethernet layer 2. In Cloud Computing terminology, with Interstellars, the tenants have the ability to bifurcate and secure their network of virtual machines across decentralized hardware by simply assigning the virtual machines’ network interface card with a 28-bit Interstellar Identification.

By bifurcating and securing the decentralized network at layer 2, only the virtual machines that have the same Interstellar Identification can communicate with eachother, irrespective of their local or global location.

As an additional benefit, you can save a lot of time and energy by not having to carve separate layer 3 networks and setting up different gateways for them. Further, you may not have to configure the virtual machines to point the gateways you set up to have them communicate!

In this way you can substantially reduce the complexity, manageability and maintainence of networks and also further reduce the risks of misconfigurations which usually lead to security breaches.

Interstellars come built-in with the SynchroKnot software. The SynchroKnot software transforms any server, workstation, desktop or embedded device into a decentralized cloud or data center [data decenter].

You can use any commodity X86_64 Desktop/Workstation/Server/Embedded device and connect them to eachother in minutes.

Here are some of the highlights of how SynchroKnot Interstellar approaches network security by getting directly to the heart of layer 2 Ethernet:

■ Fully Flattens, Bifurcates and Secures the network at Layer 2. Works transparently, irrespective of stacked / unstacked vlans, and without deviating from standard Ethernet semantics.

■ Based on the design and architecture of Interstellar Identification, Interstellar Resonance Identification and Interstellar OUI [Organizationally Unique Identifier].

■ Each vNIC of the virtual machine MAC address has a 28-bit Interstellar Identification. Assign your own choice of Interstellar IDs.

■ Each virtual machine with the same Interstellar ID can communicate with eachother irrespective of their location. All other traffic from the virtual machine is not allowed to touch the network.

■ In the case where a virtual machine needs to resonate [ communicate ] across different Interstellars at the same time, additional Interstellar IDs can be accommodated in the form of Interstellar Resonance IDs. Both Interstellar and Interstellar Resonance IDs remain intact even when the virtual machines relocate to any other decentralized location.

■ Interstellar OUI allows direct interaction of the virtual machines with the existing physical data center infrastructure [ routers, switches, gateways, appliances & devices ]. Simply add the needed OUI(s) [ organizationally unique identifier – a 24-bit number that uniquely identifies a vendor or manufacturer ] and gain transparent access.

■ Interstellars [ in collaboration with other SynchroKnot features ] allow for flexible carving of the IP network(s) of the virtual machines by allowing the creation of large networks [ eg: /7, /8, /16 etc ] without having to set up routing and gateways to move across subnets or worry about broadcasts. The same flexibility is transparently possible with IPv6 and anything usually above layer 2.

More information is available at:

Cloud Computing

Software Defined to Spatial Defined Networking

While software defined networking has proven its value, SynchroKnot has taken software defined networking to a whole new dimension with Spatial Defined Networking.

Spatial Defined Networking is made up of SynchroKnot’s core networking component called Satellite Tree Protocol, which is an enhancement to the IEEE standard [ 802.1D (1998|2004), 802.1W ] while keeping the core semantics in place.

This simplistically means, you can use any commodity X86_64 Desktop/Workstation/Server/Embedded device and connect them to eachother.

There is no need to purchase physical or virtual switches and routers or any of their licenses [Eg. Cisco, Juniper etc].

Satellite Tree Protocol is the core networking component of the SynchroKnot Cloud Computing and Data Center Decentralization software.

In brief, the SynchroKnot software transforms any server, workstation, desktop or embedded device into a decentralized cloud or data center [data decenter].

There are various demonstration videos depicting its workability, performance, security and scalability on

Here are some of the highlights of the SynchroKnot Satellite Tree Protocol:

■ Automatic – Mission-Critical – Resilient – Self-Sustaining – Self-Healing – Seamless Scaling Without Down-Time – High-Performance.

■ Nothing to configure or manage.

■ Enhancement to the IEEE standard [ 802.1D (1998|2004), 802.1W ] while keeping the core semantics in place.

Standard Layer 2 Ethernet remains pure, untouched and unmodified without frame encapsulation, additional headers or other forms of tinkering.

■ Improving upon and applying the globally accepted IEEE standard found in network switches onto Spatial Fabric Satellites. Network is no longer a separate complex component with separate hardware and licenses, but is now built right in with nothing extra that needs to be done.

■ Depending on your need and/or requirement, you now have a logical straight-forward option and ability to eliminate Top-of-the-Rack, Spine, Leaf, Edge, Aggregation and Core Switches & Routers, along with their respective licenses.

■ Large-Scale, High-Performance Layer 2 Environment with a single instance of Satellite Tree Protocol with support for single, double and triple stacked VLANS.

■ Does not cause a network-wide outage on failure of link(s) as experienced with regular Spanning Tree Protocol [ STP ] and Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol [ RSTP ].

■ Recovery from failure is, in most cases, in sub-milliseconds to about 1.5 seconds depending on the nature of failure [ single / multiple links ] and the distance from the point(s) of failure. Traffic that does not traverse the path where failure occured is generally not affected by the failure at all.

■ Intelligent Layer 2 Optimized Cost Multipath forwarding logic based on local intelligence chooses the best link with the shortest optimal path in normal operation, congestion and on link failure.

■ Multiple ANY-to-ANY Layer 2 routes allow you to add and remove hardware transparently without turning off whole or sections of the network, as experienced with switches and routers in networks today.

■ Zero Configuration.

How about never having to endure countless hours of pain configuring, managing and maintaining physical Ethernet ports, trunking and ACLs and other aspects? How about plugging one end of Ethernet cable into ANY physical port of a commodity hardware and connecting the other end to ANY physical port of another commodity hardware and that’s it – nothing to do.

■ Get the best of cost, low latency, bandwidth and performance in multiple directions, not just East-West / North-South with the help of SynchroKnot Multi-Dimensional topology.

■ SynchroKnot Multi-Dimensional topology is a dynamic mix and integration of proven network topologies which are used as a primary backbone in High Performance Computing and Supercomputing. These include Ring, 2-D, 3-D and many other custom topologies optimized for cost, performance and simplified cabling.

■ Single-length cable for the entire cluster. No long haul cables. No expensive power-consuming optical cables.

■ Very low CPU usage.

Apart from all these features, there are multitude of extra security features to choose from on top of the Satellite Tree Protocol.

More information is available at: