Categories
Cloud Computing

The Internet of Spatial Defined Systems with SynchroKnot

What is the Internet of Spatial Defined Systems? and Where does fit in with IoT?

We have heard of Cloud Computing, Data Centers, Edge computing and their numerous expansions and variations. However for the most part the architectures used underneath these Infrastructures and the technologies governing them remain centralized in terms of location and disparate in terms of hardware + software used at that central location.

For example, you may have your cloud computing infrastructure located at a centralized data center. This cloud computing infrastructure is made of up disparate hardware, namely servers, redundant switches & routers, storage [SAN/NAS] and load balancers etc., and run the standard virtualization software like OpenStack, VMware, Hyper-V and so on.

So, in a sense, this standard and expensive business model has locked itself into a myriad of traps. Some of the most important traps are scalability, complexity, security, manageability, maintenance, vendor lock-ins, maintaining of multi-tiered separate teams, time-consuming fixes to problems, and much more.

One method out of this architectural quicksand is to look at the novel approach of the wonderful research done within the IoT industry and adapt it to the systems architecture in a way such that you should be able to use all kinds of systems from embedded devices to desktops, workstations and servers across both wired and wireless networks transparently.

In other words, building a decentralized, automatic cloud and data center which can be rapidly scaled globally within the budget and performance requirements of the end users. Plus, it must have the ability to be kept at locations other than just a data center. Some of the examples of locations are offices, cubicles, basements, apartments, closets, fiber optic hubs, 5G base stations, shops and much more.

This is where SynchroKnot software does it all and takes care of everything. SynchroKnot has made it easy with its software. It installs in minutes and does much more than what the centralized cloud computing technologies and data center put together can do today and what they aspire to be able to do in the future. You can transform any server, workstation, desktop or embedded device into a decentralized cloud or data center [We call it a data decenter].

Apart from just merely de-centralizing, with SynchroKnot, anyone can sell their full or under-utilized hardware resources using Bitcoin, and without involving centralized financial institutions/payment processors.

To alleviate the concerns and criticisms directed towards IoT, SynchroKnot has multifarious real-world security measures built into the software, which are aimed at substantially improving the overall security of decentralized systems.

For SynchroKnot end users, its unique Satellite Tree Protocol allows the inter-connectivity of heterogeneous devices over wired and wireless networks, all automated and fault-tolerant without the need to manage any aspect. This unique network component eliminates the need for physical switches and routers.

There are a multitude of components that you can choose from to build and enhance your Internet of Spatial Defined Systems!

For more information, please visit synchroknot.com

Categories
Cloud Computing

Software Defined to Spatial Defined Networking

While software defined networking has proven its value, SynchroKnot has taken software defined networking to a whole new dimension with Spatial Defined Networking.

Spatial Defined Networking is made up of SynchroKnot’s core networking component called Satellite Tree Protocol, which is an enhancement to the IEEE standard [ 802.1D (1998|2004), 802.1W ] while keeping the core semantics in place.

This simplistically means, you can use any commodity X86_64 Desktop/Workstation/Server/Embedded device and connect them to eachother.

There is no need to purchase physical or virtual switches and routers or any of their licenses [Eg. Cisco, Juniper etc].

Satellite Tree Protocol is the core networking component of the SynchroKnot Cloud Computing and Data Center Decentralization software.

In brief, the SynchroKnot software transforms any server, workstation, desktop or embedded device into a decentralized cloud or data center [data decenter].

There are various demonstration videos depicting its workability, performance, security and scalability on synchroknot.tokyo

Here are some of the highlights of the SynchroKnot Satellite Tree Protocol:

■ Automatic – Mission-Critical – Resilient – Self-Sustaining – Self-Healing – Seamless Scaling Without Down-Time – High-Performance.

■ Nothing to configure or manage.

■ Enhancement to the IEEE standard [ 802.1D (1998|2004), 802.1W ] while keeping the core semantics in place.

Standard Layer 2 Ethernet remains pure, untouched and unmodified without frame encapsulation, additional headers or other forms of tinkering.

■ Improving upon and applying the globally accepted IEEE standard found in network switches onto Spatial Fabric Satellites. Network is no longer a separate complex component with separate hardware and licenses, but is now built right in with nothing extra that needs to be done.

■ Depending on your need and/or requirement, you now have a logical straight-forward option and ability to eliminate Top-of-the-Rack, Spine, Leaf, Edge, Aggregation and Core Switches & Routers, along with their respective licenses.

■ Large-Scale, High-Performance Layer 2 Environment with a single instance of Satellite Tree Protocol with support for single, double and triple stacked VLANS.

■ Does not cause a network-wide outage on failure of link(s) as experienced with regular Spanning Tree Protocol [ STP ] and Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol [ RSTP ].

■ Recovery from failure is, in most cases, in sub-milliseconds to about 1.5 seconds depending on the nature of failure [ single / multiple links ] and the distance from the point(s) of failure. Traffic that does not traverse the path where failure occured is generally not affected by the failure at all.

■ Intelligent Layer 2 Optimized Cost Multipath forwarding logic based on local intelligence chooses the best link with the shortest optimal path in normal operation, congestion and on link failure.

■ Multiple ANY-to-ANY Layer 2 routes allow you to add and remove hardware transparently without turning off whole or sections of the network, as experienced with switches and routers in networks today.

■ Zero Configuration.

How about never having to endure countless hours of pain configuring, managing and maintaining physical Ethernet ports, trunking and ACLs and other aspects? How about plugging one end of Ethernet cable into ANY physical port of a commodity hardware and connecting the other end to ANY physical port of another commodity hardware and that’s it – nothing to do.

■ Get the best of cost, low latency, bandwidth and performance in multiple directions, not just East-West / North-South with the help of SynchroKnot Multi-Dimensional topology.

■ SynchroKnot Multi-Dimensional topology is a dynamic mix and integration of proven network topologies which are used as a primary backbone in High Performance Computing and Supercomputing. These include Ring, 2-D, 3-D and many other custom topologies optimized for cost, performance and simplified cabling.

■ Single-length cable for the entire cluster. No long haul cables. No expensive power-consuming optical cables.

■ Very low CPU usage.

Apart from all these features, there are multitude of extra security features to choose from on top of the Satellite Tree Protocol.


More information is available at:
■ synchroknot.com

Categories
Cloud Computing

Strong Network Security with ARPless – Hapless without ARPless?

In the realm of network security we tend to hear a lot of terms like “denial of service”, “man-in-the-middle”, or “session hijacking” and so on. For those deep into the networking and network security field, dealing with these terms is a real-life situation everyday.

Also, keeping up to date with the latest trends, software and solutions is a major part of the knowledge gathering practices.

Although it is near-impossible to have a 100% final solution to the serious issues of denial of service, man-in-the-middle, or session hijacking and similar others, SynchroKnot has approached the underlying cause to help substantially reduce and, in some cases, fully alleviate these issues.

For those unfamiliar, SynchroKnot software transforms any server, workstation, desktop or embedded device into a decentralized cloud or data center [data decenter] in minutes. You can use any commodity X86_64 Desktop/Workstation/Server/Embedded device and connect them to eachother. There is no need to purchase virtualization software [VMware, OpenStack, Hyper-V etc], switches & routers or storage [SAN/NAS].

ARPless is a part of SynchroKnot Spatial Defined Networking and works with the virtual machines of the tenants. It builds a secure vacuum of multi-dimensional layers of security starting with not allowing the virtual machine’s MAC address to be spoofed. Then, it only allows the communication between groups of virtual machines with their matching 28-bit Interstellar Identification assigned to their MAC addresses, and as a last step, securely and intelligently auto-responds to the virtual machines when they make an ARP request so that they always know who is who and where to go. This practically makes ARP spoofing, ARP cache poisoning, or ARP poison routing very difficult-to-impossible.

[It is advised to read the post earlier about Interstellars]

As an additional option, ARPless can be invoked with blockchain cryptography, which ensures that security policies, accountability and awareness are at the same level across the team(s), department(s) and organization(s).

Above is just a brief description. Below are some of the highlights:

■ ARPless creates a secure vacuum for trusted communication between virtual machines, and also with the existing physical infrastructure.

■ ARPless does not allow forced traffic diversion from poisoned ARP caches of virtual machines to reach undesired destination(s).

■ ARPless ignores requests from virtual machines that impersonate the original to force divert traffic or gain access.

■ ARPless securely and intelligently auto-responds to the virtual machines when they make an ARP request [ no agent / software needs to be installed inside the virtual machine(s) ]. It does not allow ARP requests from the virtual machines to get onto the network.

■ ARPless can further limit ARP traffic within the secure vacuum.

■ ARPless practically makes ARP spoofing, ARP cache poisoning, or ARP poison routing very difficult-to-impossible, which in turn substantially reduces the possibilities of other attacks stemming from it, such as denial of service, man-in-the-middle, or session hijacking.

■ ARPless intelligently handles and manages the following opcodes : 1 Request, 2 Reply, 3 Request_Reverse, 4 Reply_Reverse, 5 DRARP_Request, 6 DRARP_Reply, 7 DRARP_Error, 8 InARP_Request and 9 ARP_NAK

We have an excellent video to sharpen your skills at the link below.

■ Network Security with Arpless Interstellar

More information is available at:
■ synchroknot.com

Categories
Cloud Computing

Flood Ping Fun with 24 Switches in a Ring Topology!

This demonstration video shows a total of 24 Ethernet switches in one large loop [ Ring Topology ] with Satellite Tree Protocol enabled and multiple switches being brought down and up every 10 seconds while Flood Pings are underway from multiple directions!

The SynchroKnot Satellite Tree Protocol an enhancement to the IEEE standard [ 802.1D (1998|2004), 802.1W ] while keeping the core semantics in place, and is a part of SynchroKnot Spatial Defined Networking.

Satellite Tree Protocol is the core networking component of the SynchroKnot Cloud Computing and Data Center Decentralization software which transforms any server, workstation, desktop or embedded device into a decentralized cloud or data center [data decenter].

The object is to ascertain the automatic and fast network resilience [root bridge failure, failover and failback], fault tolerance and intelligent path selection capabilities amidst very low hardware resources.

This demonstration setup has been purposefully done with an illogical setting so as to test how it can perform in extreme circumstances.

Mininet is used for actual network emulation.

You may also notice results of prior flood ping tests in the demonstration video before the current one gets underway.

We would like to assume that the outcome result with 0% [zero percent] packet loss with 24 switches is a bit much for our logical mind to digest and would love to blame the ping utility with a faulty flood ping option 🙂 ….. of course upon deeper contemplation you may develop an insight that differs.

■ In actual use case scenarios, with our unique cabling technique in a 5 X 5 2-D Torus topology, one may generally not have more than one or two hops! 24 nodes are used for purposes of extreme testing in difficult case scenarios.

■ Simple machine with 2 cores [4 threads] Intel Core i7-6500U Processor with 8 GB RAM. Alongside, a few running virtual machines not a part of this demo were used in the background to consume CPU and memory resources, leaving fewer CPU cycles and memory for Satellite Tree Protocol and the 24 nodes with Mininet. [This demonstration video was also recorded on the same machine and thus used additional CPU cycles and memory.]

■ Side Note : Spanning Tree Protocol and Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol generally respond to failures by recovering in about 40 to 300 seconds or more depending upon the timers and topology [ RSTP may recover faster in some scenarios ]. This is with the regular vendor / standards suggested timers found in most switches in standard setups today. One can increase the network diameter [ i.e number of switches between two endpoints ] to a maximum of about 18. This however will substantially increase the recovery time, alongside most likely put the timers of switches out of sync. Your mileage may vary. Please do your own research.

■ Caution : If you try a similar setup with standard physical Ethernet switches [Cisco, Juniper etc] then you are solely responsible if you brick your appliance(es). We cannot help you recover them.

In brief, the SynchroKnot software transforms any server, workstation, desktop or embedded device into a decentralized cloud or data center [data decenter]. You can use any commodity X86_64 Desktop/Workstation/Server/Embedded device and connect them to eachother. There is no need to purchase physical or virtual switches and routers or any of their licenses [Eg. Cisco, Juniper etc].

This demonstration video is available at the link below and also on synchroknot.com under the the demo section:

■ Spatial Satellite Tree Protocol showing Root Bridge failure, failover, failback with Flood Ping from multiple directions

More information is available at:
■ synchroknot.com